Operator
is symbol, which represents, a particular operation that can be performed on
some data. The data itself (which can be either a variable or a constant) is
called the “operand”. The operator thus operates on operand. They are
classified as
(1) Arithmetic (2) relational (3) logical
(4) Assignment (5) increment/decrement
(6) Conditional (7) bitwise (8) special
Arithmetic operators: 
There are five arithmetic
operators in “C”. They are:
OPERATOR

PURPOSE

+

Addition



Subtraction

*

Multiplication

/

Division

%

Remainder
after integer division

Examples (Suppose A=10
and B=3)
Expression

Values

A+b

13

ab

7

A*b

30

A/b

3

A%b

1

Relational Operators: 
There are four relational operators in “C”. They are:
< less than
<= less than or equal to
> greater than
>= greater than or equal to
The associatively of these operators is lefttoright.
Closely associated with the relational operator are the following two equality
operators:
= = equal to
! = not
equal to
Suppose that i, j and k integer variable whose values are
1,2 and 3 respectively, Seven logical expressions involving these variables are
shown below. :
Expression

Interpretation

Value

i<j

True

1

(i+j)>=k

True

1

(j+k)>(I+5)

False

0

K!=3

False

0

J = = 2

True

1

Logical Operators:
‘C’ provides
three logical operations. They are:
Operator Meaning
&& AND
 OR
! NOT
These operators are referred to as logical AND logical OR
and logical NOT respectively.
The following table shows the result of the combined
expressions depending on the value of the expression:
Operands

Results


Exp1

Exp2

Exp1 && exp2

Exp1  exp2

0

0

0

0

0

Nonzero

0

1

Nonzero

0

0

1

Nonzero

Nonzero

1

1

The associatively us lefttoright.
Assignment Operators:
Assignment operators are use to form assignment expressions,
which assign the value of an expression to an identifier. The most commonly
used assignment operator is =. Assignment expression that make use of this
operator are written in the form
Identifier = Expression
a= a+1 a+=1
a=a1 a=1
a=a*( c + d) a*=(c
+ d)
a=a/(n1) a/=(n1)
a=a%10 a%=10
Increment and Decrement Operators:
“C” offers two special operator ++ and –
called increment and decrement operators, respectively. There are “unary”
operators since they operator on only one operand. The operand has to be a
variable and not a constant. Thus the expression a++ is valid as 6++ is
invalid. The use of these operates resulting incrementing or decrementing value
of the variable is 1. So the expression a++ increment the value of a by 1 and
the expression a  decrements a by 1. These operators can be used either
before or after their operand. (i.e. in either “prefix” or “postfix” position)
so we can have a++(postfix) and ++a (prefix). Prefix and postfix have some
effect if they are used in an isolated statement. For example, the effect of
the following statements would be same:
a++; ++a;
However
prefix and postfix operators have different effects when used in association
with some other operator in “c” statement. For example, if we assume the value
of a variable to be 5 and then assign that new value to b. The effect is
exactly same. If the following two statements have been executed :
b = a++;
b=++a;
On the
other had, execution of the statement b = a++; will be first set the value of b
to 5 and then increases the value of a to 6. The effect is now same as if the
following statement had been executed :
b = a; b= a+1;
[ Note : First precedence : R>L
associatively)
Conditional operators:
Simple
conditional operations can be carried out with the conditional operator (?:) An
expression that makes the use of the conditional operator is called a
conditional expression. Conditional operators are also known as turnery
operators.
Syntax:
(condition) ? true : false
Exp1 ?
Exp2 : Exp3
Here if
condition is evaluated as true then value of exp2 will be return and if
condition is evaluated as false then exp3 will be return.
For example
T=(I<0) ? 0 : 100
If I
variable value is less then 0 then condition is evaluated as true and T will be
assigned with 0 but if I variable value is greater then 0 then condition is
evaluated as false and 100 will be assign to variable T. For example
Printf(“%d”, (I<0) ? 0:100);
Sizeof Operator:
The size
of a compile time operator and when used with an operand, it returns the number
of bytes the operand occupies. The operand may be variable, a constant or a
data type qualifies.
M
= sizeof(sum);
N= sizeof(long int);
K= sizeof(253L);
The size
of operator is normally used to determine the length of array and structures,
when their sizes are not known to the programmer. It is used to allocate memory
space dynamically to variable during execution of a program.
Bitwise operators:
Some
applications require the manipulation of individual bits within a word of
memory. Assembly language or machine language is normally required for
operations of this type. However C contains several special operators that
allow such bitwise operations to be carried out easily and efficient. These
bitwise operators can be divided into three general categories: the one’s
complement operator, the logical bitwise operators, and the shift operators.
“C” also contains several operators that combine bitwise operations with
ordinary assignment.
The One’s Complement operator:
The one’s
complement operator (~) is a unary operator that causes the bits of its operand
to be inverted (i.e. reversed) so that is become so a so become is. This
operator always precedes its operand. The operand must be an integer type
quantity (including integer, long, short, unsigned, or char).(Linearly the
operand will be an unsigned octal or an unsigned hexadecimal quantity, though
this is not a firm requirement.
Suppose int a=16 with 2 byte=16 bit pattern
it will be Ã 00000000 00010000
b=~a
the b will have 16 bit
pattern like Ã 11111111 11101111
Logical bit wise operators :
There are
three logical bitwise operators : bitwise and ($), bitwise exclusive or(^) and
bitwise or(!). Each of these operators requires two integer type operands. The
operations are carried out independently on each pair of corresponding bits
within the two operands will be. Thus the least significant bits( i.e. the
rightmost bits) within the two operands will be compared then the least significant
bits. And so on. Until these comparisons are :
B1

B2

B1&b2

B1^b2

B1  b2

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

The
associatively for each bitwise operator is lefttoright.
Shift operators:
The two
bitwise shift operator is shift left (<<) and shift right(>>). Each
operator requires two operands. The first is an integertype operand that
represents the bit pattern to be shifted. The second is an unsigned integer
that indicates the number of displacements (i.e. whether the bits in the first
operand will be shifted by 1 bit position, 2 bit position, 3 bit positions and
so on). This value cannot exceed the number of bits associated with the word
size of the first operand.
The
leftshift operator causes the left by the bits in the first operand to be
shifted to the left by the number of position indicated by the second operand.
The leftmost bit positions that become vacant will be tilled with us.
A =
01101101 10110111
A<<6
= 0110 1100 0000 = 0x5dc0
All the bits originally assigned to a are
shifted to the left six places, as the arrows indicate. The leftmost 6 bits
(originally 011011) are lost. The rightmost 6 bits positions are filled with 00
0000.
The right shift operator causes all the bits in the first
operand to be shifted to the right by the number of positions indicated by the
second operand. The rightmost bits(i.e. the underflow bits) in the original bit
pattern will be lost. If the bit pattern being shifted represents an unsigned
integer, then the leftmost bit positions that become vacant will be filled with
0s. Hence, the behavior of the rightshift. When the first operand is an
unsigned integer.
A=
0110 1101 1011 0111
A>>6
= 000 0001 1011 0110 = 061bc
We see
that all the bits originally assigned to a are shifted to the right six places,
as the arrows indicate. The rightmost 6 bits ( originally 11 011) are lost. The
leftmost 6 bits positions are filled with 00 0000.
Comma Operator:
The comma
operators are use primarily in conjunction with the for statement. This
operator permits two different expressions to upper in situation where only one
expression would ordinarily be used. For example, it is possible to write
For (expression la,
expression lb; expression2; expression3) Statement
Where
expression la and lb are the two expression, separated by the comma operator,
where only one expression would normally appear. These two expression would
typically initialize two separate indices that would be used simultaneously
within the for loop.
Similarly,
a for statement might make use of the comma operator in the following manner.
For (expression 1a;
expression2;expression3a, expression3b) statement;
Here
expression 3a and expression 3b separated by the comma operator, appear in
place of the usual single expression. In this application the two separate
expressions would typically be used to alter the two different indices used
simultaneously within the loop. For example, one index might count forward
while the order counts backward. In for loops.
For(n=1,m=10;
n<=m; m++, n++)
Precedence and Associativity Table
Precedence
is a priority of the operator for evaluation or execution when there are more
then 1 operator in a single expression or statement. If there are operators of
same precedence then the expression will evaluated either from LEFTTORIGHT or
RIGHTTOLEFT. This is called an associativity of an operator.
Description

Operator

Associativity

Precedence

Function
expression

( )

L TO R

1

Array
expression

[ ]

L TO R


Structure
operator

>

L TO R


Structure
operator

.

R TO L


Unary
minus



R TO L

2

Increment/Decrement

++ 

R TO L


One’s
complement

R TO L


Negation

!

R TO L


Address
of

&

R TO L


Value
of address

*

R TO L


Type
cast

(type)

R TO L


Size in
bytes

Size of

R TO L


Multiplication

*

L TO R

3

Division

/

L TO R


Modulus

%

L TO R


Addition

+

L TO R

4

Subtraction



L TO R


Left
Shift

<<

L TO R

5

Right
Shift

>>

L TO R


Less
than

<

L TO R

6

Less
than equal to

<=

L TO R


Greater
than

>

L TO R


Greater
than or equal to

>=

L TO R


Equal
to

= =

L TO R

7

Not
equal to

!=

L TO R


Bitwise
AND

&

L TO R

8

Bitwise
exclusive OR

^

L TO R

9

Bitwise
inclusive OR



L TO R

10

Logical
AND

&&

L TO R

11

Logical
OR



L TO R

12

Conditional

? :

R TO L

13

Assignment

= *,=
,/=, %=
+=,=,^=,=,&=
<<=,>>=

R TO L

14

Comma

,

R TO L

15

0 comments:
Post a Comment